Diamonds are unique within the natural world and among gemstones for many reasons. The main reason is the fact that a diamond is a crystalline mineral composed of only one element, carbon. All other minerals, gem or otherwise, are composed of at least two elements and, as a result, are compounds.
This unique atomic structure results in unprecedented optical, chemical and physical properties, and when properly modified by man, yields the most dazzling and beautiful gemstone. Interestingly, rough diamonds may be some of the most beautiful naturally occurring objects on earth.
Diamonds must be considered separately from colored stones for many reasons and chief among them is the language used to qualitatively describe the relative quality of a given diamond. Because of the consistency of a diamond, a system was developed to 'rate' a given stone against known values (weight and color) or given quality ranges (clarity). This system has been referred to as the 4 C's.
THE DIAMOND REPORT